It’s that time of year: time to start winding down for the winter holiday season, time to reflect on the past year, and time to think about what we can accomplish together in 2024. The Wasmtime and Cranelift projects are no exception. This article recounts Wasmtime and Cranelift progress in 2023 and explores what we might do in 2024.

Wasmtime is a standalone WebAssembly runtime. It is fast, secure, embeddable, and standards compliant.

Cranelift is a fast, secure, (relatively) simple, and innovative compiler backend. It is developed in tandem with, and primarily used by, Wasmtime.

Wasmtime and Cranelift have had 1679 commits from 129 different authors in 2023 — and the year isn’t even over yet! Huge thanks to everyone who helped make this happen.

Want to get involved in Wasmtime and Cranelift? Check out our contributor documentation!

The year’s overall theme was maturity and reliability. Progress generally fell under one of three big umbrellas:

  1. Cranelift compiler
  2. WASI interface design and implementation
  3. Wasmtime Runtime

Apologies in advance: this is not the quickest read! But we accomplished a lot this year and that’s reflected in the length.

Wasmtime Runtime

Wasmtime added support for a variety of WebAssembly proposals in 2023:

  • The tail calls proposal adds guaranteed tail call elimination to Wasm, helping functional languages and other constructs like finite state machines efficiently target Wasm. The proposal was implemented by Nick Fitzgerald and Jamey Sharp.

  • The relaxed SIMD proposal introduces new SIMD instructions whose precise results may vary depending on the underlying hardware to Wasm, unlocking new speed up opportunities for certain classes of programs. This proposal was implemented by Alex Crichton.

  • Initial support for the function references proposal was implemented by Luna P-C, Daniel Hillerström, and Alex Crichton. This proposal is a prerequisite to the GC proposal, introduces subtyping to WebAssembly reference types, and eliminates some type checks when indirectly calling typed function references. There is still work to be done to expose typed function references in Wasmtime’s embedding API.

  • The component model aims to enable building interoperable and composable Wasm libraries, applications, and environments. Initial support for running components in Wasmtime was implemented by Alex Crichton, with some help from Nick Fitzgerald, towards the end of 2022. In 2023, the component model specification added the concept of resources which are passed by handle (like a file descriptor) instead of by copying (like data in a pipe) and Alex Crichton implemented support for resources in Wasmtime.

Additionally, the threads, multi-memory, and relaxed SIMD proposals reached phase 4, and since we have confidence in their implementations and they have been thoroughly fuzzed, we have enabled them by default in Wasmtime.

We also shipped a number of new features for profiling, debugging, and checking the correctness of Wasm programs running within Wasmtime:

  • Sophia Sunkin and Chris Fallin added a valgrind-style memory access checker for Wasm programs running within Wasmtime. It checks Wasm programs for classic memory bugs like invalid frees and accesses of non-malloced memory regions.

  • An in-process, cross-platform sampling profiler was added to Wasmtime by Jamey Sharp. It helps you debug and diagnose performance issues of Wasm programs running within Wasmtime. The new profiler is built on top of Wasmtime’s existing stack capturing and epoch interruption features. It generates profiles that use the same data format as Firefox’s profiler, and therefore these profiles can be viewed in the Firefox profiler’s fantastic Web UI.

  • Support for generating Wasm core dumps when a Wasm program traps was added by Rainy Sinclair and Nick Fitzgerald. See the core dump subsection of the Wasmtime guide to learn more about how this can help with post-mortem debugging.

  • Wasmtime’s VTune integration improved: one can now profile Wasm-level program symbols. Andrew Brown and Rahul Chaphalkar fixed a bug preventing VTune from understanding these symbols, so profiling with VTune is much better.

There were also important embedder-facing improvements and additions that are invisible to the Wasm programs running inside of Wasmtime:

The pooling allocator — Wasmtime’s fastest WebAssembly instance allocation strategy that reserves a pool of memory for Wasm instances ahead of time — received the following improvements in 2023:

In April, we were bitten by a CVE caused by a rustc miscompilation that we root-caused all the way back to some undefined behavior (UB) deep inside the vmctx-management code inside Wasmtime. Since then, Alex Crichton has enabled running all Wasmtime tests that don’t actually execute Wasm under MIRI for every pull request. MIRI is an interpreter for rustc’s mid-level intermediate representation that detects certain classes of UB. We can’t actually execute Wasm under MIRI, because it doesn’t understand just-in-time compilation and mapping new pages as executable, but we can exercise all of the vmctx-management code and the libcalls that Wasm makes to modify VM state. When executing those tests, MIRI immediately found the root-cause UB that triggered the miscompilation that triggered the CVE, Alex fixed those bugs, and we are now UB-free under MIRI. Running tests under MIRI gives us assurance that we won’t be bitten by this same class of bug again in the future.

Finally, we are in the process of adding support for running Wasm that was compiled by an alternative compiler from Cranelift: Winch. Winch is a baseline compiler that does a single pass over the Wasm and emits native code very quickly. Its implementation is a lot simpler than Cranelift’s. The downside is that it emits worse code that hasn’t been optimized the way it would have been by Cranelift. Initial Winch integration with Wasmtime landed in April and there have been many follow-up pull requests since then. Thanks to Saúl Cabrera, Jeffrey Charles, Kevin Rizzo, and others for their work on Winch.

What’s Next for the Runtime in 2024?

We’d like to implement (and finish implementing) support for a few key WebAssembly proposals in 2024:

  • Firstly, we want to implement and ship the WebAssembly GC proposal in 2024, which gives Wasm the ability to define struct and array types and allocate instances of those types whose lifetimes are dynamically managed by the runtime. We have an implementation plan, and work is already mostly done on GC support in our binary decoder and validator by Nick Fitzgerald and Ivan Mikushin. Thanks also to Ryan Hunt and Ben Visness from the Firefox team for implementing support for the GC proposal in our Wasm text format parser, which Firefox also uses.

  • As part of implementing the GC proposal, and exposing garbage-collected values in Wasmtime’s public API, we will also cross the last “t”s and dot the last “i”s for the function-references proposal.

  • We’d like to implement and ship the WebAssembly exception-handling proposal in 2024. This will enable C++ with exceptions and Rust compiled with panic=unwind to run within Wasmtime. We also expect that most toolchains targeting Wasm GC will assume support for exceptions as well, so the proposal is simply part of what it will take to be a modern Wasm runtime in 2024.

  • We are excited for the nascent thread-spawning proposal being created by Andrew Brown and Conrad Watt that adds finer-grained sharing of WebAssembly state than the initial threads proposal (which was just memories, no globals, tables, or GC objects) and potentially a thread.spawn instruction. The proposal is very early days and expected to change quite a bit, but we would like Wasmtime to be an early implementer and provide valuable spec feedback.

  • We would like to enable the tail calls proposal by default, since the proposal is phase 4 and essentially complete, however we need to do some final tweaks to the tail calling convention to get its performance at par with the current default calling convention. Once we reach performance parity, we can turn tail calls on by default.

  • We will continue work on the component model. Part of this work will be polishing Preview 2 (see the following WASI section) with better support for versioning interfaces. The other part of the work will be adding new component model features such as native async, optional imports, enhancements to resource methods.

We intend to keep working on Winch in 2024, and that work falls along two main axes:

  1. Wasm feature completeness: implementing all instructions and proposals in Winch that are supported in Cranelift.

  2. Target completeness: right now Winch primarily targets x86-64, with some initial aarch64 support. It would ideally support all the architectures that Cranelift and Wasmtime do: x86-64, aarch64, s390x, and riscv64.

We would also like to continue pushing on developer tooling for Wasmtime, and Winch plays a role here as well. We have some existing debugging support, but the user experience isn’t great and it requires using gdb or lldb to debug the whole process, including host code and Wasmtime’s internal VM code. It’s the equivalent of attaching gdb to Firefox when you want to debug some JavaScript inside a Web page. We’d like to enable live Wasm guest debugging without being distracted and overwhelmed by the rest of the code in the process. To provide the most accurate debug information, without having locals optimized away, we will leverage Winch. We also have lots of cool ideas about rr-style record and replay and how to provide a good user experience, so keep your eyes peeled for an RFC in this space early next year.

Additionally, we intend to keep slimming down Wasmtime’s code size foot print and making it appropriate for more and more embedded environments. That work will initially focus on the footprint of a Wasmtime build that can load and run pre-compiled Wasm modules and components. As a stretch goal — and if the available engineering resources permit it — we might even begin investigating, make an RFC for, and start implementing an interpreter tier for Wasmtime. If this is something you’re interested in or interested in helping out with, come say hello on Zulip!

Finally, we may also start exploring what a “host component” or plugin system for Wasmtime looks like. This would tie in with the code size efforts, as it could potentially spin functionality out from the base Wasmtime build, further shrinking its footprint. It could also tie in with our WASI implementation and how we expose new system capabilities to Wasm guests. The exact details of what this might look like are very much up in the air, but if you think “host components” or a plugin system could solve a problem you’re having, chime in on the linked issue and keep your eyes peeled for an RFC next year.


WASI provides a set of standard, open interfaces for interacting with the environment your Wasm is running within. Since its inception, Wasmtime has always been on the forefront of WASI implementation, and 2023 was no different.

We wrote a new implementation of WASI in 2023 for the upcoming Preview 2 release. The design of WASI has been factored to use the component model to provide resource types, and exposes a new low-level scheduling interface (pollables) as well as streams which many other interfaces build on.

We reimplemented WASI Preview 1 on top of the new Preview 2 implementation. This will allow us to retire the wasi-common implementation of Preview 1 in the future, and simplify Wasmtime’s WASI implementation’s maintenance. This implementation is enabled by default as of Wasmtime 15.

We also wrote a WASI Preview 1 component adapter, which allows us to turn Wasm Modules that use Preview 1 into Wasm Components that use Preview 2 interfaces. This is a critical piece of infrastructure that allows users to adopt Preview 2 before the work to use it directly in wasi-libc, Rust’s std, and other languages’ standard libraries is complete.

Wasmtime now implements the following Preview 2 WASI proposals:

  • wasi-io: Foundational scheduling interface and stream types

  • wasi-random: Random number generation

  • wasi-clocks: Monotonic and wall clocks

  • wasi-filesystem: Filesystem access, structured much like in Preview 1

  • wasi-sockets: New TCP and UDP networking functions

  • wasi-cli: Stdio, environment variables, and other command-line application concerns. Defines the wasi:cli/command world, which is more or less Preview 1’s functionality, plus sockets.

  • wasi-http: HTTP client and server. Defines the wasi:http/proxy world, which is the common functionality available across many serverless Wasm providers, such as Fastly Compute and Fermyon Spin.

Furthermore, the Wasmtime CLI grew the wasmtime serve subcommand which starts a local HTTP server, and instantiates and runs the given Wasm component targeting the wasi:http/proxy world for each incoming HTTP request. The wasmtime serve subcommand first shipped in Wasmtime 14.

Similarly, the wasmtime run subcommand of the CLI can now execute Wasm components which use the wasi:cli/command world. This functionality shipped in Wasmtime 13.

Wasmtime also expanded its support for a new wasi-nn feature: named models. Named models allow Wasm modules to avoid downloading large ML models when computing inferences; instead, these models can be pre-loaded into a registry, e.g., with the -S nn-graph CLI option.

Thanks so much to everyone who worked on Wasmtime’s WASI implementation: Pat Hickey, Dan Gohman, Alex Crichton, Trevor Elliott, Joel Dice, Roman Volostavos, Eduardo Rodrigues, Luke Wagner, Brendan Burns, and others!

What’s Next for WASI in Wasmtime in 2024?

The most immediate goal is finalizing the standardization of Preview 2 in collaboration with the WASI subgroup of the W3C’s WebAssembly Community Group and shipping an implementation of it in Wasmtime. Once that is complete, there are a number of further things we intend to do:

  • We will begin building native async support into the component model and WASI.

  • We will continue working on more tools for providing WASI interface implementations, such as wasi-virt.

  • We will implement more WASI interface proposals in Wasmtime itself (or as Wasmtime plugins) such as wasi-kv and other interfaces in the WASI cloud family.


2023 was a big year for Cranelift! Most importantly and impressively, Cranelift finally got its own Website:!

Cranelift is also now distributed via rustup as an experimental backend to the Rust compiler as part of the rustc_codegen_cranelift (a.k.a cg_clif) project! Huge congrats to bjorn3, Afonso Bordado, and others on reaching this milestone. Check out the instructions in the latest progress report if you want to try it out. We’ve heard reports of build times being cut down to less than half their original time after switching to cg_clif for debug builds. It had historically been the case that certain combinations of CLIF opcode (say rotl) and type (say 128-bit integers) were implemented in one backend but not another. Especially if these combinations weren’t exercised by Wasmtime. Afonso Bordado and bjorn3 did the tireless whack-a-mole work of finding and filling these gaps to unblock cg_clif.

Last year we also introduced a new mid-end framework based on acyclic e-graphs and ISLE rewrites. A “mid-end” is the architecture-independent portion of the compiler pipeline that performs optimizations that are generally useful regardless of whether you are targeting x86-64 or riscv64. An e-graph, or equivalence graph, lets us represent when many different expressions are equivalent so we can choose the version with the least cost (i.e. will ultimately produce the fastest machine code). ISLE is our domain-specific language for authoring rewrite rules and lowering our intermediate representation into actual machine instructions.

This last January, once we had reached performance and code quality parity on all of our benchmarks, and once we were confident in the correctness of the new code, we flipped the switch and enabled the new mid-end by default. However, out of an abundance of caution and care, we kept the old mid-end around just in case we found a critical CVE and needed to temporarily disable the new mid-end again. Finally, by April we were extremely confident in the new code, so we removed the old mid-end pipeline once and for all. This was the culmination of a lot of hard work by Chris Fallin with help from Jamey Sharp, Afonso Bordado, Nick Fitzgerald, Trevor Elliott, and more.

Chris Fallin gave an invited talk at the EGRAPHS workshop at PLDI this year on the design and implementation of the new mid-end:


We’ve had 17 different contributors add or tweak ISLE rewrite rules in the mid-end and it’s become a common starting place for new folks to dive into Cranelift development. We’ve also automated harvesting potential left-hand sides from Wasm and synthesizing new optimization rules via Souper.

Even so, there are plenty of rewrites we are still missing and ways we could extend the mid-end framework and ISLE compiler in 2024:

  • We’d like to synthesize more optimization rules via Souper that are based on hot functions in specific benchmarks we care a lot about (e.g. the interpreter-loop function in spidermonkey.wasm).

  • It would be nice to do a census of rewrites in LLVM and GCC and port the rewrites we’re missing to ISLE. This could be a great place for a motivated new contributor to start chipping away at!

  • We’d like to extend the mid-end framework to be able to rewrite side-effectful instructions like instructions that can trap as well as instructions that produce multiple results. It can’t rewrite either currently.

  • We’d like to investigate fusing rewrite rules together inside the ISLE compiler, so that we rewrite an expression directly to its optimal form in one step, instead of incrementally across many rewrite invocations.

  • Many operations are commutative, and we would like to have the ISLE compiler automatically emit code to match add(foo(), x) and add(x, foo()) without needing to explicitly author both versions. This becomes even more important when we are matching against deep patterns that contain multiple nested commutative operations.

  • We currently perform some legalization early in the compiler pipeline in open-coded Rust matches, that we would like to port to ISLE. Some exploratory work has already begun.

  • Finally, right now we elaborate out of the e-graph representation back to a control-flow graph, and then lower out of the control-flow graph into machine instructions. The elaboration step involves an explicit cost function where we assign a cost to each operator and use dynamic programming to extract minimum-cost expressions. Lowering also involves a cost function, but it is implicitly encoded in the patterns we have on the left-hand sides of our lowering rules. If we can combine a certain shape of add and multiply into an address mode of a load when targeting a particular architecture, those specific forms of adds and multiplies are cheaper than they otherwise would be if they feed into a load. At some time in the future, we’d like to explore combining these cost functions and lowering directly from the e-graph representation, without elaborating back into a control-flow graph in between. We suspect that, with the right design and implementation, we could both speed up compile times and emit better machine code.

We also implemented a number of codegen improvements and optimizations outside of the mid-end framework in 2023:

  • Nick Fitzgerald optimized code produced when compiling Wasm with explicit bounds checks, reducing their overhead in comparison to using virtual memory guard pages to elide bounds checks. Before this work started, using explicit bounds checks was about three times slower than using guard pages. Now it is only about one and a half times slower, which matches what we’ve seen from other top-tier Wasm engines, like SpiderMonkey. We have ideas for new optimization passes to further speed up explicit bounds checks in 2024 as well.

  • Trevor Elliot added support for overlapping live ranges in regalloc2 and a number of other small but important optimizations. These changes involved migrating regalloc2 to a fully static single-assignment (SSA) interface and hunting down all the little places in Cranelift’s backend where we played a little too fast and loose but it didn’t previously matter. This sets us up for more potential compile time and code quality wins in the future such as removing the redundant move eliminator.

  • Afonso Bordado adopted the riscv64 backend, performed a massive clean up, eliminated internal branches in the emitted code, and added a ton of new lowering rules to emit better code sequences for certain snippets of CLIF. He also added support for emitting RISC-V’s compressed instructions which shrink code size, improve energy efficiency, and lower icache misses, TLB misses, and page faults.

  • Alex Crichton added extensive support for using AVX instructions for both SIMD operations and non-SIMD floating point operations to our x86-64 backend. This provides two primary benefits:

    1. These instructions are typically in “three-operand form” where one of the input registers is not necessarily also the destination, which gives more flexibility to the register allocator.

    2. These instructions don’t typically fault on unaligned memory accesses, so we can sink loads and stores into other floating point operations. Because Wasm can’t guarantee loads and stores within linear memory are aligned, we wouldn’t otherwise be able to sink these memory operations, and would need to emit separate explicit load and store instructions that handle unaligned addresses.

  • It was previously the case that enabling the Wasm SIMD proposal in Wasmtime (and using SIMD instructions in general with Cranelift) on x86-64 required the SSE4.2 extension. Alex Crichton lifted that constraint and added fallback lowerings for SSE4.1, SSSE3, and SSE2.

  • Alex Crichton also improved a few SIMD benchmarks by finding and fixing missing special-case lowerings for SIMD on x86-64 and on aarch64.

Of course, we didn’t only work on optimizations in Cranelift this year. One of Cranelift’s core goals and reasons for existence is its focus on security, correctness, and lightweight verification. We made a number of improvements along these lines in 2023 as well.

We are happy to share that we have formally verified our CLIF to machine instruction lowerings for all of the integer operations in the aarch64 backend! This is a very strong guarantee: it proves that for all compilations, the associated lowering rules are correct. We had a CVE related to bad address mode lowerings in March, and by adding the relevant verification specs to the x86-64 lowering rules, we were able to identify the bug without even compiling and running any Wasm code that leveraged the vulnerability. This is one way we are mitigating sandbox escapes in the future. The paper has been conditionally accepted for ASPLOS 2024, and you can read a pre-print here. Big thanks to Alexa VanHattum, Monica Pardeshi, Chris Fallin, Adrian Sampson, and Fraser Brown, as well as Jamey Sharp, Nick Fitzgerald, Trevor Elliott, and everyone else involved in this effort. In 2024, we hope to expand this work to our other backend targets, like x86-64, as well as to the mid-end rewrite rules.

The second way we are mitigating potential miscompilations that can lead to sandbox escapes is by translation validation and proof-carrying code. This work aims to validate that every memory operation we emit on behalf of a particular Wasm program is provably within that Wasm’s linear memory sandbox. The VeriWasm paper did this for an old version of Cranelift but Cranelift and Wasmtime have grown up a lot since then: emitting better code that takes advantage of more complicated address modes, and supporting multiple memories with different configurations. Chris Fallin attempted to revive the VeriWasm project and port it to modern Wasmtime, but found that updating its forwards static analysis was both too difficult and too slow. However, he came up with an alternative solution based on proof-carrying code, where the Wasm frontend leaves “breadcrumbs” describing facts it believes to be true about the values computed in the program, and then after we lower the program to machine instructions we assert that we can prove that these facts still hold. Chris Fallin and Nick Fitzgerald implemented this approach in October and November, and it is very promising: initial benchmarks show as little as 1% overhead to compilation. The proof-carrying code approach supports both static memories with virtual guard pages to elide bounds checks and dynamic memories that rely on explicit bounds checks. That said, there are currently known bugs and false positives. We hope to fix these bugs and get our proof-carrying code safety checks shipping and enabled by default in 2024.

Additionally, we continued pushing our boulder up the hill and making improvements to our fuzzing infrastructure:

  • Afonso Bordado contributed many fixes and additions to the CLIF interpreter and to the CLIF test case generator. We use the test case generator to create random inputs when fuzzing, and we use the interpreter as an oracle to do differential fuzzing against the compiler.

  • Remo Senekowitsch, Falk Zwimpfer, MzrW and Chris Fallin added a “chaos mode” to Cranelift compilation. When enabled, Cranelift will make random (but deterministically seeded) and semantics-preserving changes to its output: invert a branch condition and swap the if/else branch targets, skip merging fallthrough blocks together, split live ranges randomly, etc… The goal is to uncover hidden bugs that require bizarre context in order to reproduce.

  • And of course there was continued attention on the little things, like fixing the bugs we find while fuzzing, such as avoiding quadratic behavior when processing branch labels and incorrect float-to-int conversion on riscv64.

Cranelift also received support for some new features in 2023:

Finally, we landed some internal refactorings that are largely invisible to the outside world (but very important for the long-term health of the project!) such as cleaning up CLIF as an intermediate representation. For example, Trevor Elliott added proper two-way conditional branches so we don’t need to maintain the invariant that basic blocks ending in conditional control flow end with a one-way conditional branch to the consequent followed by an unconditional branch to the alternative. Trevor also introduced the uadd_overflow_trap CLIF instruction to improve bounds-checks performance.

What’s Next for Cranelift in 2024?

We will continue to push on best-in-class safety and correctness. As previously mentioned, we have lots of ways we’d like to extend ISLE and our mid-end framework. We want to verify our lowering rules for more backends and verify our mid-end rules. In general, the more parts of the compiler pipeline we can rephrase as ISLE rewrites, the more of the compiler we can formally verify. We’d like to ship the proof-carrying code safety checks and eventually enable them by default. We want multiple layers of protection because no layer is completely perfect on its own.

We intend to continue our ongoing performance efforts. We should continue to improve both compile times and code quality. We have the big frameworks in place, for the most part, and now we can start focusing on evolving the rule sets within them.

Overall, we expect to fall into the steady development rhythm that reflects Cranelift’s position as a maturing compiler!

See You in 2024!

We are extremely proud of the work we’ve done in 2023 and we are excited to accomplish even more together in 2024! If you want to get involved in Wasmtime or Cranelift, check out the contributors documentation and come say hello in our Zulip chat.

One more big thanks to everyone who contributed over the past year! Y’all are spectacular and amazing!

See you next year!